Copper outlook 2011 – a Beijing opera
This post is a guest contribution by Dian Chu, market analyst, trader and author of the Economic Forecasts and Opinions blog.
Year 2010 had been good to almost all investment classes. Stocks, bonds, commodities, and dollar are all moving higher in tandem, a first of such unison since 2005. Among them, commodity is the one leading the pack partly on dollar weakness, as well as propped up by world’s central banks quantitative easing.
Base metals, in particular, are further supported as China keeps on trucking with double-digit growth despite most of the world practically stood still during the worst global recession since World War II.
If you think Gold’s 30% gain last year is impressive, one base metal–Copper–even outshined the precious metal by rallying 33% on the year, and reached an all-time record in London, New York, and a 3-1/2 year high in Shanghai. Copper futures for March delivery on the Comex in New York stood at $4.4470 a pound at year-end, a record settlement.
Nonetheless, compared to Gold relatively steady ascend, Copper prices have been on a roller coaster ride in the past few years, dropping almost 54% in 2008 amid global financial crisis, before staging a 130% comeback in 2009, and +33% in 2010 (See Chart Above).
Santa’s Short Cover Rally
Before anybody declares Copper the Untouchable, I’d like to point out that a lood at the CFTC Commitment of Traders report quickly reveals that in November, commercial participants, who accounted for 54.4% of copper futures open interest, held net short positions.
This suggests some institutional players probably called the top of the market too soon, which is not that far off given the prior highs reached in pre-crisis 2008. But as I noted my analysis of gold and euro, the global excess liquidity is distorting almost all signals thus making trend analysis quite challenging. And the force majeure declared by Chile’s Collahuasi Mine around Dec. 20 only compounded the short squeeze, as Collahuasi is world’s 3rd largest copper mine accounting for about 3% of annual world supply.
So, that means the 14% jump in December month was largely a short covering rally. Now, looking ahead into 2011, the price direction of copper will likely still hinge on supply, and mostly China demand, but it also depends on a couple of new market factors emerged just within the last year or so.
A More Diversified Supply Base
Fortunately, unlike rare earth metals, whose supply is single-sourced to China, Copper has a more diversified supply base. Chile, Peru and the U.S. account for around 50% of world’s copper production with Chile supplying over one third of world’s copper demand (See Chart).
A Looming Supply Shortage
Many analysts are forecasting a supply shortage in 2011 as the global economic recovery ramps up. Although estimates vary, the expected supply shortfall in 2011 ranges from 380,000 metric tons by BMO to Barclay’s 825,000 metric ton.
China Demand Could Decrease on Further Tightening
While most copper bulls are pointing to China’s refined copper imports was up 37% month over month in Nov, which was the first in three months, according to Reuters, the year to date figure was a fairly modest 5% year-over-year growth, a far cry from the 25% growth in 2009. Even producer BHP Billiton was expecting a decline in Chinese demand in 2010 (See Chart Below).
Moreover, as Beijing is gearing up for more tightening and restrictions, particularly on the real estate and auto sectors, to fight off inflation, asset bubbles and traffic congestion, I expect Chinese copper consumption may actually decrease by 8% to 10% in next year or two.
China’s “Unreported” Inventories
Furthermore, I think most people may have underestimated the possibility that China would use its purchasing power and stock piles to “level the copper playing field”, so to speak, as China typically does not like to come in at the near top of the market.
Little Ado About Yuan
Everybody Loves Copper
Meanwhile, media reports citing data from London Metal Exchange (LME) said one trader (rumored to be JPMorgan Chase & Co.) currently holds 80-90% of the 377,550 metric tons of copper stored in LME approved warehouses, valued at around $3.5 billion. I would not be surprised if this one trader is acting on behalf of an ETF or investment bank.
Bigger Crash, But High Floor
But on the flip side, this also means ETFs could do to Copper as SPDR Gold Trust (GLD) has done for the Gold market—increase investments and fund inflows. This, coupled with increasing investors demand as a hedge against currency and inflation, will likely put in a new and higher floor for copper, probably in the $3 a pound range, give or take 20 cents.
Market Ahead of Itself
However, I think Copper’s 55% price jump since July is a clear indication that a robust demand trend (from China or elsewhere) is already priced in…and then some. So, it looks like the copper market is getting ahead of itself, which indicates limited upside and more downside risks in the New Year.
The Third Reserve Currency
However, I must say there’s is a possibility that copper could go to $5.50 as investors consider copper as the third reserve currency behind dollar and gold, since silver is much more volatile.
I think copper most likley will see a correction in the first quarter with some profit taking after the New Year, followed by some buying on the dip. Then, there would be a pullback in summer followed by a run-up towards the end of 2011.
Stairs Up, Freight Elevator Down
Overall, Copper should have major support at $3.80, $3.50, and $3.20. A break below $3.20 would be an extremely bearish indicator. On the upside, $4.75 and $5.00 should be the next two resistance levels.
If crude is to take the escalator up, but the elevator down, expect copper to take the stairs up, and the freight elevator down, if anything goes wrong in China.
Source: Dian Chu, Economic Forecasts and Opinions, January 2, 2011.
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